Stone Mountain Fried Chicken

I was born in Brooklyn, New York (this makes me a “Yankee”) but spent my formidable years in the south (Georgia and coastal Carolina).

During my southern tenure – I picked up a few souvenirs – specifically: a lingering accent and the ability to say “y’all” like a native; a love for Friday night football and (don’t judge me) country music; and most importantly – a sacred appreciation for fried chicken.

Oh chicken.  Why would anyone want you any other way than fried?  There is nothing more mouth watering than slightly spicy, skillet fried, crispy chicken.  One of the best presents I ever received was a skillet and a jar of overpriced pork fat from Moveable Feast to fry chicken in.  ::Sigh::


The best fried chicken I ever had was at Stone Mountain Park in Georgia.  It was served out of the back of a woman’s pickup truck.  She shook it up in a brown paper bag filled with flour and spices, dipped it in buttermilk, and fried it up right there.  Amazing.

I’ve experimented with a number of recipes over the years in my quest to replicate the Stone Mountain fried chicken.  The one below is a hodgepodge of a few different recipes (taking the best component of each) that – together – most closely resemble that Holy Grail of fried chicken deliciousness I bit into over 25 years ago during a school field trip to Stone Mountain.

For you first timers – be patient with yourself as you learn to fry chicken.  It really is an art form and it takes time to develop your skill.  Plus, unlike other recipes, frying chicken requires a lot of attention.  You must tend to the chicken and methodically flip it so it cooks evenly and doesn’t burn.  The more you do it – the better you’ll get at it.

Cooking Tip:  If you want to fry chicken, you need to get yourself a skillet.  Being “country” is super trendy these days so you can purchase skillets at a wide variety of fine retailers.  The best part? A good skillet doesn’t need to set you back a million dollars.  The Lodge Large Cast Iron Skillet (13.25) is available at Crate & Barrel, does a great job and won’t break the bank at only $59.95.  You are also going to want to invest in a good pair of tongs and a baking tray.


My family believes in supporting local businesses.  If you live in the Chicagoland area – you can purchase everything you need to make Stone Mountain Fried Chicken at the retailers below.  If you are visiting this site from a different part of the globe – I encourage you to seek out your own local providers.  Supporting small businesses helps the local economy and preserves the cultural fabric of American life.


  • 8 Pieces of Chicken with Skin Intact
  • 2 Cups All Purpose Flour (My Favorite is King Arthur Flour brand)
  • 2 1/2 Tablespoons Kosher Salt + 1/2 Tablespoon for Flour Mixture
  • 2 Tablespoons Fresh Ground Pepper
  • 1 Teaspoon of Cayenne
  • 1 Teaspoon of Smoked Paprika
  • 2 Cups of Fresh Buttermilk
  • 2 Farm Fresh Eggs
  • Pork Fat for Frying
  • Sturdy Freezer Bags
  • Paper Towels
  • Aluminum Foil


Remove raw chicken from packaging and pat dry with paper towels.  Put all of the spices together in a freezer bag and shake until mixed.  Put the chicken into the freezer bag and shake until all of the pieces are evenly covered with the spices.  Place in refrigerator for a minimum of three hours or (even better) overnight.

Remove chicken from refrigerator and let rest until chicken is room temperature.  Mix flour and remaining 1/2 tablespoon kosher salt in a bowl.  In a separate bowl, mix buttermilk and eggs together to form a “buttermilk bath.”

Take a piece of chicken and dunk it in the buttermilk bath.  Shaking off the excess liquid, roll the chicken in the flour mixture.  Shake off all residual flour until your chicken looks lightly dusted (flour coating should be thin – not thick).  Work in pieces until all of the chicken is bathed, floured and ready to go.

img_4258.jpgPre-heat oven to 350 degrees.  Fire up your skillet over medium heat.  Put a generous amount of pork fat into the skillet.   There should be enough fat in the pan so that the chicken has a nice bubbling pool of melted fat to cook in.  Here is where the “art form” comes in.  Let the fat melt until it is shiny and piping hot – but not smoking.  When the chicken hits the pan – it should make a crackling – not a hissing sound.  You don’t want your pan too hot – but not too cool either. The more chicken you fry – the better you will get at spotting when your fat is ready for the chicken.

Some folks will try to get you to use a temperature gauge in the skillet to measure the heat of your oil.  Don’t do it!  Frying chicken is about simple pleasure and loving attention to a gorgeous piece of fried bird.  Don’t mess it up with fancy gadgets.  (A real southerner would insert a comment here about “Damn Yankees” and “Fancy knick-knacks ruining a good thing.”)


Once the fat is shiny and bubbling – place a few pieces of chicken into the grease.  Make sure the pieces have plenty of room from each other.  Never overcrowd the skillet.  Attentively watch your chicken and rotate.  And rotate.  And rotate.  And rotate until the skin is crackling and a crunchy golden crust forms all over the skin of the bird.  Once the skin is “finger lickin’ good” looking – remove the chicken from the skillet and place onto paper towels to absorb the excess grease.  Continue working in this manner until all pieces are done.

After all of the chicken has its excess fat absorbed – places all 8 pieces on a baking tray lined with tin foil.  Bake for 15 minutes.  Let rest for another 15 – and then hollar for your kin: “Chicken’s on the table y’all!” and watch ’em come a runnin’.

 Side Kick Recipe: Butter Drop Biscuit

  • 2 Cups Flour
  • 1 Tablespoon Kosher Salt
  • 2 Teaspoons Baking Powder
  • 1 3/4 Cups Heavy Cream
  • Irish Butter – Softened
  • Farm Fresh Honey

Pre-heat oven to 350 Degrees.  Mix flour, salt and baking powder in a bowl.  Mix in heavy cream until mixture is thick – but too thick – and doughy.  Add more cream as necessary.  Using a large spoon – scoop even amounts of the biscuit dough onto a baking tray lined with chef’s parchment paper.  Bake until golden brown (about 15 minutes).  Remove from oven and serve piping hot with softened butter and drizzle with honey.


I love hearing from “y’all.”  If you have questions about how to execute the perfect fried chicken – or want additional tips and tricks – use the contact form to message me below.  I promise to get back to you lickity split.

Set the Perfect Table for Easter

Table top design is one of my favorite parts of hosting an event (whether private or for my own family).  A great table top is all about layering different textures to create a unique and one of a kind look. When I am designing a table top scheme – I use the following tips and tricks.  I hope they will help you as you design your own spring tabletop.

Linens & Fabric: Think of table linens, fabrics, napkins and runners as the foundation of your table setting.  If you have an amazing table with unique features – think twice before putting a table cloth on it.  Opt for a runner instead.  As a general rule, I only use a full length table cloth when (1) the table I’m using is a standard banquet table with folding legs etc. or (2) if I am trying to protect an otherwise beautiful table from a rowdy crowd of party goers (i.e., Kids! Well, and Super Bowl fans).  By using a runner over a table, you create a layered look that honors the lovely exposed elements of the table (wood, marble etc.) – while also adding a pop of color or detail.  If you do need to use a full length table cloth – consider layering a runner on as well.  Again, it is all about contrast and creating an aesthetic that is pleasing to the eye.

Regarding napkins, I use napkins that compliment my table linens – but are not identical.  In this year’s Easter design, I used a lovely brown and white checkered table runner.  Rather than having “matchy matchy” napkins – I relied upon light brown linen napkins.  Styled up with a festive Eater Egg Napkin Ring – the linens are a perfect complement to the dish ware described below.

Dishes, Glasses & Silverware:  When styling dishes, the rule of thumb is complimentary – but not matching.  For example, in my Easter tabletop – I layered distressed gold chargers, with pale green, white and gold polka dot dinner plates and a plain white salad plate.  To “dress” up the setting, I placed a brown linen napkin with Easter Egg Napkin Ring on the top of the salad plate – giving the entire look a “festive” vibe.  For the silverware, I found these adorable burlap stitched silverware holders from one of my favorite local boutiques (Royal Wren, Geneva)  Again, the benefit of layering with natural elements is that everything looks complimentary – even if the shades are slightly different.  Finally, I selected fun vintage pink glassware with raised eater bunnies to stay true to the whimsy of the season.

Floral Design: I do not like tall floral arrangements on dining tables.  I find that they obstruct the guests’  view and burden conversation.  Reserve “statement” arrangements for the bar area or at another place where  they will not be intrusive.  Or, opt for a statement wall arrangement like I did here with wooden angel wings (Cocoon, Geneva) and oversized roses (Paper Merchant, Geneva).  For my Easter table, I used simple cream and pink roses and arranged them into squat mason jars with a natural twine element.  I placed them around an incredible Jan Barboglio handblown wine decanter with iron cross decal (Artemisia, Geneva).

Love this Look? Let’s Connect!

Executing the perfect Easter tabletop isn’t easy.  Want to create this look? Need some extra support? Use the form below to connect with me directly.  Cheers and be Blessed!

Tabletop Design & Decor

I am obsessed with plates.  I love high-end designer dinnerware sold at luxury retailers like Neiman Marcus.  I love antique plates from second hand stores and local boutiques.  I love plates on clearance at Home Goods and World Market.  Lord help me at a garage or estate sale.  I squeal when I see a pattern that catches my eye.

The other day, I saw a collection of plates in an Instagram post from one of my favorite local boutiques (SG Too in Saint Charles, Illinois).  I was on the phone with the store begging them to hold the set for me until I could fly over in the minivan on my lunch break to scoop them up.  I am now the proud owner of a vintage Mackenzie Childs summer ware collection.  All is right in the world.

I think the reason I love plates so much is because of what they promise – namely – that friends and loved ones will gather over those plates to share a beautiful meal together lovingly prepared by my family in our home.  A plate isn’t just a thing.  It is the vessel for the food that will breed laughter, conversation and many beautiful memories.

You will see table top throughout my website – as I cannot really plan an event or celebration without giving the plates a tremendous amount of thought (sometimes I buy plates and then plan an event around them!).  However, continue to return to this page to see my favorites.

From my family to yours – Cheers and be Blessed! 

Have a Passion for Plates? Let’s Connect!

If you are as obsessed with tabletop as I am, let’s connect.  Send me a message below – or better yet – a picture of your favorite tabletop! Connect with me on Instagram by tagging me in a tabletop post and I’ll give you a shout out.


A Bright & Blooming Easter

As a Christ Follower, Easter is my favorite holiday of the year (Thanksgiving being a close second).  As a Chicago resident, after months of frigid cold tundra, Easter not only represents the celebration of my God’s ultimate sacrifice, but also the end of sub-zero temperatures, puffy coats and salt encrusted vehicles.

This year for Easter, I selected a vintage, pastel look with layers of natural elements.  Use the planning guide below to:

  • Decorate a Gorgeous Front Door for Spring
  • Set the Perfect Table
  • Host a One of a Kind Egg Hunt

From my family to yours – I hope you have a joyful Easter.  Cheers and be Blessed!


Decorate the Perfect Front Door for Spring

Visit this page for a step by step guide on how to decorate your front door perfectly for Easter.  Let the neighborhood envy commence!


Set the Table

I start planning my table top decor months in advance of any holiday or special event.  For Easter 2018 – I decided to go with a super romantic vintage look. Visit here to learn how to “set to impress” this Easter season.


Bath Bomb Egg Hunt

I have hosted dozens of Easter Egg Hunts.  This year, I wanted to do something different and outside the box.  So, I opted to use bath bombs from one of my favorite local boutiques in lieu of “eggs.” Visit here for ideas on how to execute this concept at home.

Let’s Connect!

I love hearing from my readers.  Do you have any questions or comments about the looks  styled above?  Need help executing this concept? Message me below!  Together, we can plan the perfect Eater Celebration.



Front Door Decor: Make Way for Spring!

DSC_5973fI am so over this Chicago weather.  The cold, the snow, the gray – the yuck!  With the first day of Spring fast approaching (Tuesday March 20th!) – I am welcoming a balmy change of temperature (here’s hoping!) by creating the perfect Front Door Decor.

When I style my home, I love to use natural fibers and combine them with vintage textured pieces.  By using materials like hemp rope, burlap and well-worn wood, you can transition these items in between seasons.  A lovely jute rug for your front entranceway can shift gears nicely between winter and holiday decor into spring and Easter decor.

I decorate in layers and textures.  When people walk up to my front door – I want them to  be delighted, surprised and – most importantly – welcomed!  I work hard to keep the front door well maintained and fresh looking at all times.


Basket Weave Bunny

Wooden crates are inexpensive and sold at any major craft store retailer (I am a loyal fan of JoAnn Fabric).  I use them as a quick solution for storage at parties, events and playdates.  However, they can just as easily be flipped upside down and used to stage a cake, candy bar, giveaways – or in this case – a basket weave bunny.  By placing the bunny on the crate, he is given height and then I can also “layer” additional items beneath – like a floral decor lantern.  Simple glass geometric lanterns are always good to have on hand.  Again, they can easily transition in between holidays and seasons.



Design Tip: If you want a simple solution to “spruce up” a lantern for seasonal decor – with minimal effort on your part – try using decorative napkin rings.  Find a napkin ring you love – I found these Easter Egg ones at Homegoods.  Simply slide the napkin ring over the top of the lantern and – ta-da!- you have a great seasonal decor item that required no major exertion.


Lantern and Napkin Ring

The most important part of decorating for Spring is to keep things fresh and simple.  I use a lot of white with pops of bright color.  By the end of the season – I am so over dark and dreary.  That is why I love love love a bright white wreath.  It just pops on every kind of front door and says “Spring is here!”

Want help creating the Perfect Front Door Decor?

Creating the perfect front door decor isn’t always easy.  If you have questions, or need feedback on the look created here – please message me below.

Unicorn Makeover Party

Unicorns are very trendy right now.  I mean, unicorns are always trendy to 8 year old girls, but unicorn parties are super desirable.  For this event, a discerning birthday princess declared that she wanted a “Magical Unicorn Makeover Party.”  Our team got hard to work designing the perfect event.

I am proud to have collaborated with It’s a Girl Thing in Geneva, Illinois as the venue for the party.  Mary and her team did an excellent job “making over” the girls with fancy up-dos complete with glitter (so much glitter!).  Guests were led through a series of games before getting to “dress up” and do a live fashion show.

At the end, the made-over unicorn princesses dined on pizza (of course) and treats from a candy bar custom designed by yours truly.  The candy bar was full stocked with goodies from our friends at Rocket Fizz and Blue Goose Market both located in Saint Charles, Illinois.


Planning the perfect ice cream social isn’t easy.  I love sharing my tips and tricks with my readers.  Need additional support?  Connect with me below.

Transformed by the Word.

Recently, my church asked me to give testimony about my transformation through Christ.  My relationship with Jesus is just that – a relationship – and it is ongoing.  In this short video – you get to hear from me first hand how God got my attention – and how my life was never the same after.

Have Questions about my Faith Story? Let’s Connect!

I did not become a Christ Follower overnight.  My relationship with Jesus started when I was at the lowest point of my young adult life.  It took nearly a decade before I would be baptized.  No matter where you are in your faith journey – please connect with me below.  If I can be a resource to you – I will certainly try.  If you need prayer, I will gladly pray for you.  Walk boldly toward Jesus!  He is waiting with loving and open arms.

Donuts for Sale

Not all children’s events have to occur on a special occasion like a birthday.  Sometimes it is fun to plan a child’s party “just because.”  When we host playdates at our home – we like to plan something outside of the box.

At the playdate featured below – we set up a real life Donut Shoppe with delicious pastries and a vintage cash register!  The kids – as well as the grownups – had a blast eating the yummy treats.  The children practiced their leadership and management skills; learned to work as a team; and had to do some math as well.

This event hit all of the marks – fun, whimsical and an educational component.  I hope you will try this concept out at your next playdate!



Providers & Suppliers

Want to Plan this Party? Let’s Connect!

Planning the perfect Donut Shoppe Playdate isn’t easy.  Need help executing this event?  Message me below!  I am happy to share tips, tricks or step in and orchestrate this playdate for you.

Leaving Litigation: A Leap of Faith

“I don’t want to be a lawyer anymore.”

I stood in the doorway of our family room.  My husband was eating chips.  I had just put our children to bed.

“Ha, ha,” Jeff responded sarcastically.  He was only halfway paying attention to me.  The chip bag crinkled.  The laugh track from the television carried through the room.

I stood silently and then leaned against the door frame.

“Babe,” my voice broke.  He turned his eyes to me.  I had his attention now.

“I don’t want to be a lawyer anymore.”

I do not remember every day of my life but some days strike me with such clarity that I can re-create them – second by second – from recall.  The day I knew that I would no longer practice law is one of those memories.

It was early fall.  I was partner in a personal injury law firm.  I sat in my large office.  I stared at the mahogany furniture.  I looked blankly at my computer.  I could not muster the strength to open my email.  I knew what awaited me inside.  Demands.  Complaints.  Arguments.  Personal attacks.  More demands.  More complaints.  More arguments.

Email wasn’t just on my computer.  It was on my phone.  It was on my tablet.  It was on the watch on my wrist.  It was everywhere.  Like a poison.

I had spent the better part of the day in a deposition of an infectious disease specialist at a hospital.  I sat across from the doctor and asked him questions.  I attacked his credibility.  I attacked his credentials.  I attacked his treatment of my client.  I shoved medical records in his face.  The disdain and sarcasm in my voice was palpable.  The hate in his eyes for me – the lawyer – was undeniable.

pexels-photo-613508.jpegI drove back to the office in the rain for two and a half hours.  By the time I sat at my desk – all I could think of was how long it would be until I could have a drink.  I craved the anti-anxiety medication on my bathroom counter.  Feeling like I was going to have a heart attack was a daily occurrence.  My left eye twitched uncontrollably.  “Stress,” my primary care physician said.

I shut the laptop and walked to the middle of my office and closed the door.  I looked at the wall of awards: “Top 40 Trial Attorney under 40”; “Outstanding New Lawyer”; “Top 2.5% of Attorneys in Illinois”.  My name was even listed in a major Chicago publication as one of the “it” lawyers to watch.  I laughed bitterly.  The irony of my situation was not lost on me.

On paper, I was a “success.”  I had a great career.  I was married to a wonderful man and we had three beautiful children together.  I was active in our community – strived to be perfectly dressed – and politically appropriate wherever I went.  I attended professional events where people would tell me how “happy” I was and complimented my legal acumen and business savvy.

It was a lie.  The whole thing was a lie.

I smiled.  I shook hands.  I did trials and won people lots of money.  I argued with insurance companies and boasted of my success.  But at home?  I was wretched.

I drank and took medicine to sleep at night.  My dreams were nightmares.  Sometimes it took me hours to fall asleep – so I worked instead, a slave to the machine.  I was rarely present for my family.  While my children played, I checked email.  When my husband wanted my attention, I worked on the computer.  When anyone dared to cross me – they experienced my sharp tongue and vicious backlash.

I did not take a week of vacation for five years.  I worked every weekend.

A few times, my anxiety manifested itself into panic attacks followed by deep depression.  I never told a soul.  My mother, husband and a close friend were the only witnesses to my suffering.

When Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story stated: “The law is a jealous mistress,” he wasn’t kidding.  My mistress was very jealous and she demanded my complete attention – even at the expense of my family, my faith and my health.


However, God has a way of humbling you and he certainly humbled me.  The one thing that had kept me going through the years was my faith.  I prayed a lot.  I asked for God’s help.  His resounding response to my prayer was “quit.”  Me, being a lawyer, chose to argue with God instead of accepting his loving judgment.

I mean seriously.  I couldn’t quit being a lawyer.  I used to rationalize staying in my horrible career because of my success, ability and the money.  Also, leaving terrified me.  What would I do?  What would people say?

During this chapter of my life, I let fear govern me.  I let fear make my decisions.  For years, I chose to be afraid – instead of being brave.  I allowed pride to lead my life – not my heart.

But then, on the day I stood in my office as it rained and I looked at my diplomas, I did something very unusual.  I left the office and went for a walk.  I left my phone on my desk and took nothing with me.

At first, I was just going to walk around the block to get some fresh air and clear my head.  Then the sun came out.  I kept walking.  I walked for miles along a path that ran adjacent to a river.  I kept walking until I crossed into a park in the next town over.  I walked until the path looped in front of a magnificent tree.  It was here – I stopped.

2016-10-18 09.53.44

The Tree!  Visit it for yourself at Mount St.Mary’s Park in St. Charles, Illinois.

I looked up at the tree and was overcome by its beauty.  It was full and radiant.  Its leaves were turning a rich sunset orange as the fall weather creeped in.  I must have walked past this tree dozens of times before but I had never noticed it.

A peace came over me – and then a feeling of pure happiness.  I knew in my heart that I was going to retire from the practice of law.  Even better, I knew that it was going to be okay.  I was done arguing with God.  I was done arguing with myself.  I was done – with fear.

So, that night, after I put our children to bed, I told my husband that I wanted to stop practicing law.  I expected him to be furious – or at the very least – disappointed.  Relief flooded me as he took me into his arms and told me how proud he was of me.  He kissed the top of my head and said softly, “You should have done this years ago.  I should have helped you to do it.”

Knowing that I had Jeff’s support – and unconditional love – made transitioning out of the practice of law much easier than I had expected.  Actually, I was surprised at how simple it was to transfer my clients to different firms and wind up by business.  Within a few months, the phone calls stopped and the emails ebbed.

I started sleeping soundly through the night and became present for my children.  The twitching stopped and the only “sleep aid” I needed was milk, cookies and a good book.  Jeff and I laughed a lot.  We cooked together and I drank wine with my husband for pleasure – not to self-medicate.  I started to write.

Lawyers are taught to follow the “letter of the law.”  This means, we are to follow the literal translation of the rule of law with little interpretation.  William Shakespeare offered that we should examine the spirit behind a law – not just the black and white words that appear on the page.  In Shakespeare’s view, we are to examine the heart and purpose of a word – and not its strict application.  These days, I prefer the bard’s interpretation.

It took me almost a year before I returned to work – this time at a children’s charity.  Money was tight during this time – but contentment levels were high.  Jeff and I continued to make decisions based upon what was healthy for our family instead of what we “should” be doing.

Looking back, I wish I had taken that walk years ago.  But even now, I do not regret my legal career.  Being a lawyer shaped me into the woman I am today.  I will always carry a piece of that lawyer with me.  However, I now walk without any fear of the future and what it holds.

Happiness is honoring yourself.  When we pretend and put on a mask, we rot and bitterness sets in.  Only by exposing ourselves and allowing our true hearts to show – can we find true happiness and (hopefully) leave our mark on the world.

Have Questions about my Faith Story? Let’s Connect!

Walking in faith is easier said than done.  It took me years before I let God take the lead.  Exploring a relationship with Jesus yourself?  Please connect with me using the form below.  I’d love to hear your faith story.

Children’s Events & Parties

Children’s events are my favorite to plan.  An event for a child is always pure joy.  The smiles – the giggles – the wonder when we bring a child’s fantasy to life!

As a mother of three beautiful kids, I have spent the past decade planning beautiful and unique events for my family.  When I plan a children’s event for a client, I follow the same guidelines I expect for my loved ones:

  • First – start with a dream – what lights your child up inside?  What would it be like to make that dream come true for one special day?
  • Next – I collaborate with local boutiques, vendors, performers and artists to bring your child’s dream to life
  • Finally – my team executes the event with well thought out and detailed planning that anticipates the need of every guest with unique touches waiting around every corner.

Let’s Plan the Perfect Party.

I’d love to help you style the perfect event for that special child in your life.  You can connect with me directly by clicking here.  Need inspiration?  Browse the Inspiration Boards below.  Cheers and be Blessed! 

Inspiration Boards

Looking to plan the perfect children’s party?  Get inspired from our portfolio of past events!  By clicking on an event below, you will be taken to a post highlighting how we styled each party – what vendors we used – and showing the joy of our precious clients!

Magical Unicorn Makeover Party

Unicorn parties are super trendy right now.  At this event, a discerning birthday girl requested “a magical unicorn makeover party.”  Our team delivered by collaborating with “It’s a Girl Thing” in Geneva, Illinois to host the perfect party.

Donut Shoppe Playdate

Want to host a playdate that is “outside the box?”  Then this Donut Shoppe Playdate is for you!  Click on the link above to learn how to plan the ultimate playdate – you will easily become the most beloved mom on the block.

Ice Cream Social

For this little princess – nothing but an “Ice Cream Social” at her favorite ice cream parlor would do.  Visit this page for Tips & Tricks on how to style the perfect ice cream party!

Cowboy Party

When this lil’ cow poke turned One – we wanted to host an event that was whimsical, classic and charming.  By including a real life custom made “Chuck Wagon” and a petting zoo – we created the Wild Wild West right in a backyard.  Well, “Wild Wild West Suburbs” to be accurate.

Need Support? Let’s Connect!

I love connecting with people who are styling their own events at home.  DIY events and parties are always the most personal and memorable.  Have questions or need some advice?  Please connect with me by filling out the form below.